Artificial Intelligence: Oxymoron or New Frontier?While computers have surpassed human mental capabilities in certain areas, other mental functions remain beoynd their scope. The debate over the limits of artificial intelligence continues.
Are thinking and intelligence just forms of symbol processing? If they are, then digital computers would seem, in principle, to exhibit ...
How Artificial Intelligence Fails
The computer revolution has had an impact on many aspects of
our ordinary lives, ranging all the way from the way we write
letters or make our airline reservations to the invisible ways
in which our banks, governments, and credit card agencies keep
track of our finances. The development of artificial
intelligence (AI) is just one small corner of the computer
revolution, and our assessment of AI will have only a small
bearing on our assessment of the enormous impact and
achievements of the computer revolution. ...
Controversies in Artificial Intelligence
Artificial intelligence (AI) is very young. It is only forty
or fifty years old. In comparison, physics is at least three
hundred years old. The goals of AI are to understand
intelligence and build intelligent machines. However, almost
everything about AI is still controversial. AI is just getting
started. Some even doubt whether AI is possible in principle,
saying that machines cannot truly be made to think. Some say
that the study of artificial intelligence will never get off
the ground. ...
Computers and Psychology: Keeping the Human Aspect
To get clear about the issues that the invention and
application of computers have presented us with, we need to
make a sharp distinction between artificial intelligence, a
hugely successful branch of engineering, and the application
of its techniques and theoretical concepts to the problems of
understanding human thinking, in what has come to be called
cognitive science. Apart from a core of enthusiasts, it is now
widely agreed that the use of computational concepts in
psychology, driven by the thrilling analogy between computers
running programs and brains thinking, is a flop. Yet this core
of enthusiasts still exercises a great deal of influence in
the academic world and, in the way these things go, in shaping
public consciousness, long after the original program is in
the doldrums. ...
Where it's been and Where it's going
As the other articles in this theme illustrate, research in the provocatively named field of artificial intelligence (AI) evokes both ...
AI Is an Empirical Science
A number of Big Questions have, from time immemorial,
attracted human attention: What is the nature of matter? How
did the universe begin? What is life? What is mind? Artificial
intelligence addresses that fourth question: explaining how a
material system (a brain or computer) can behave intelligently
and then constructing "artificial" systems (computer programs)
that do behave intelligently. ...